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SPECIALTIES

HUEMBO CENTER/RESERVE

PERU
LOCALE

# Species:398
# Excl Vagrants:398
# Endemics:12
# Near Endemics:30
Habitat: Transitional humid-dry montane forest

BIRD CHECKLIST

The table below lists species recorded at this locale but does not indicate frequency of occurrence there. It does indicate whether each species is globally threatened or endangered according to the IUCN and also whether it is migratory, very rare, or accidental in the country. The list is based on available data and may be incomplete.*

color codes

 
Tinamous: Tinamidae

1Hooded TinamouNothocercus nigrocapillus
2Gray TinamouTinamus tao

 
Ducks: Anatidae

3Comb DuckSarkidiornis sylvicola
4Torrent DuckMerganetta armata
5White-cheeked PintailAnas bahamensis
6Masked DuckNomonyx dominicus

 
Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows: Cracidae

7Speckled ChachalacaOrtalis guttata
8Andean GuanPenelope montagnii
9Wattled GuanAburria aburri
10Sickle-winged GuanChamaepetes goudotii

 
Grebes: Podicipedidae

11Silvery GrebePodiceps occipitalis

 
Pigeons and Doves: Columbidae

12Rock PigeonColumba livia
13Band-tailed PigeonPatagioenas fasciata
14Peruvian PigeonPatagioenas oenops
15Plumbeous PigeonPatagioenas plumbea
16Ruddy PigeonPatagioenas subvinacea
17Plain-breasted Ground DoveColumbina minuta
18Ruddy Ground DoveColumbina talpacoti
19Blue Ground DoveClaravis pretiosa
20Maroon-chested Ground DoveParaclaravis mondetoura
21White-tipped DoveLeptotila verreauxi
22Gray-fronted DoveLeptotila rufaxilla
23White-throated Quail-DoveZentrygon frenata
24West Peruvian DoveZenaida meloda
25Eared DoveZenaida auriculata

 
Cuckoos: Cuculidae

26Smooth-billed AniCrotophaga ani
27Groove-billed AniCrotophaga sulcirostris
28Striped CuckooTapera naevia
29Squirrel CuckooPiaya cayana

 
Nightjars and Allies: Caprimulgidae

30Blackish NightjarNyctipolus nigrescens
31Common PauraqueNyctidromus albicollis
32Lyre-tailed NightjarUropsalis lyra

 
Potoos: Nyctibiidae

33Common PotooNyctibius griseus

 
Swifts: Apodidae

34Chestnut-collared SwiftStreptoprocne rutila
35White-collared SwiftStreptoprocne zonaris
36White-tipped SwiftAeronautes montivagus
37Fork tailed Palm-SwiftTachornis squamata

 
Hummingbirds: Trochilidae

38White-necked JacobinFlorisuga mellivora
39Green HermitPhaethornis guy
40Tawny-bellied HermitPhaethornis syrmatophorus
41Koepcke's HermitPhaethornis koepckeae
42Great-billed HermitPhaethornis malaris
43Black-throated HermitPhaethornis atrimentalis
44Gray-chinned HermitPhaethornis griseogularis
45Reddish HermitPhaethornis ruber
46Green-fronted LancebillDoryfera ludovicae
47Geoffroy's DaggerbillSchistes geoffroyi
48Brown VioletearColibri delphinae
49Lesser VioletearColibri cyanotus
50Sparkling VioletearColibri coruscans
51Amethyst-throated SunangelHeliangelus amethysticollis
52Purple-throated SunangelHeliangelus viola
53Royal SunangelHeliangelus regalis
54Black-bellied ThorntailDiscosura langsdorffi
55Ecuadorian PiedtailPhlogophilus hemileucurus
56Speckled HummingbirdAdelomyia melanogenys
57Long-tailed SylphAglaiocercus kingii
58Black-tailed TrainbearerLesbia victoriae
59Green-tailed TrainbearerLesbia nuna
60Rufous-capped ThornbillChalcostigma ruficeps
61Tyrian MetaltailMetallura tyrianthina
62Greenish PufflegHaplophaedia aureliae
63Emerald-bellied PufflegEriocnemis aline
64Marvelous SpatuletailLoddigesia mirabilis
65Shining SunbeamAglaeactis cupripennis
66Bronzy IncaCoeligena coeligena
67Collared IncaCoeligena torquata
68Violet-throated StarfrontletCoeligena violifer
69Rainbow StarfrontletCoeligena iris
70Mountain VelvetbreastLafresnaya lafresnayi
71Sword-billed HummingbirdEnsifera ensifera
72Chestnut-breasted CoronetBoissonneaua matthewsii
73Peruvian Racket-tailOcreatus peruanus
74Green-backed HillstarUrochroa leucura
75Fawn-breasted BrilliantHeliodoxa rubinoides
76Violet-fronted BrilliantHeliodoxa leadbeateri
77Giant HummingbirdPatagona gigas
78Purple-collared WoodstarMyrtis fanny
79White-bellied WoodstarChaetocercus mulsant
80Little WoodstarChaetocercus bombus
81Gray-breasted SabrewingCampylopterus largipennis
82Fork-tailed WoodnymphThalurania furcata
83Spot-throated HummingbirdThaumasius taczanowskii
84Many-spotted HummingbirdTaphrospilus hypostictus
85Andean EmeraldUranomitra franciae
86White-bellied HummingbirdElliotomyia chionogaster

 
Rails, Gallinules, and Coots: Rallidae

87Spotted RailPardirallus maculatus
88Blackish RailPardirallus nigricans
89Plumbeous RailPardirallus sanguinolentus
90Common GallinuleGallinula galeata
91Slate-colored CootFulica ardesiaca
92Rufous-sided CrakeLaterallus melanophaius

 
Plovers and Lapwings: Charadriidae

93Andean LapwingVanellus resplendens

 
Sandpipers and Allies: Scolopacidae

94Andean SnipeGallinago jamesoni

 
Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers: Laridae

95Andean GullChroicocephalus serranus

 
Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns: Ardeidae

96Fasciated Tiger-HeronTigrisoma fasciatum
97Great EgretArdea alba
98Snowy EgretEgretta thula
99Cattle EgretBubulcus ibis
100Striated HeronButorides striata

 
New World Vultures: Cathartidae

101Black VultureCoragyps atratus
102Turkey VultureCathartes aura
103Greater Yellow-headed VultureCathartes melambrotus
104Andean CondorVultur gryphus

 
Hawks, Eagles, and Kites: Accipitridae

105Hook-billed KiteChondrohierax uncinatus
106Swallow-tailed KiteElanoides forficatus
107Black-and-chestnut EagleSpizaetus isidori
108Plumbeous KiteIctinia plumbea
109Plain-breasted Hawk**Accipiter ventralis
110Bicolored HawkAccipiter bicolor
111Roadside HawkRupornis magnirostris
112White-rumped HawkParabuteo leucorrhous
113Variable HawkGeranoaetus polyosoma
114Black-chested Buzzard-EagleGeranoaetus melanoleucus
115Short-tailed HawkButeo brachyurus
116Zone-tailed HawkButeo albonotatus

 
Owls: Strigidae

117White-throated Screech-OwlMegascops albogularis
118Koepcke's Screech-OwlMegascops koepckeae
119Cinnamon Screech-OwlMegascops petersoni
120Ferruginous Pygmy-OwlGlaucidium brasilianum
121Rufous-banded OwlStrix albitarsis
122Stygian OwlAsio stygius

 
Trogons: Trogonidae

123Collared TrogonTrogon collaris
124Masked TrogonTrogon personatus

 
Puffbirds: Bucconidae

125Western Striolated-PuffbirdNystalus obamai
126Black-streaked PuffbirdMalacoptila fulvogularis

 
New World Barbets: Capitonidae

127Gilded BarbetCapito auratus

 
Toucans: Ramphastidae

128Southern Emerald-ToucanetAulacorhynchus albivitta
129Chestnut-tipped ToucanetAulacorhynchus derbianus
130Gray-breasted Mountain-ToucanAndigena hypoglauca
131Lettered AracariPteroglossus inscriptus
132Chestnut-eared AracariPteroglossus castanotis

 
Woodpeckers: Picidae

133Lafresnaye's PiculetPicumnus lafresnayi
134Speckle-chested PiculetPicumnus steindachneri
135Smoky-brown WoodpeckerDryobates fumigatus
136Little WoodpeckerDryobates passerinus
137Bar-bellied WoodpeckerDryobates nigriceps
138Lineated WoodpeckerDryocopus lineatus
139Crimson-mantled WoodpeckerColaptes rivolii
140Andean FlickerColaptes rupicola

 
Falcons and Caracaras: Falconidae

141Mountain CaracaraDaptrius megalopterus
142American KestrelFalco sparverius
143Aplomado FalconFalco femoralis
144Peregrine FalconFalco peregrinus

 
Parrots: Psittacidae

145<Barred Parakeet>Bolborhynchus lineola
146Cobalt-winged ParakeetBrotogeris cyanoptera
147Red-billed ParrotPionus sordidus
148Speckle-faced ParrotPionus tumultuosus
149Blue-headed ParrotPionus menstruus
150Scaly-naped ParrotAmazona mercenarius
151<Golden-plumed Parakeet>Leptosittaca branickii
152Scarlet-fronted ParakeetPsittacara wagleri
153Mitred ParakeetPsittacara mitratus
154White-eyed ParakeetPsittacara leucophthalmus

 
Typical Antbirds: Thamnophilidae

155Rufous-rumped AntwrenEuchrepomis callinota
156Rufous-capped AntshrikeThamnophilus ruficapillus
157Variable AntshrikeThamnophilus caerulescens
158Uniform AntshrikeThamnophilus unicolor
159Plain AntvireoDysithamnus mentalis
160Slaty AntwrenMyrmotherula schisticolor
161Streak-headed AntbirdDrymophila striaticeps
162Black AntbirdCercomacroides serva

 
Antpittas: Grallariidae

163Chestnut-crowned AntpittaGrallaria ruficapilla
164Pale-billed AntpittaGrallaria carrikeri
165Rusty-tinged AntpittaGrallaria przewalskii

 
Tapaculos: Rhinocryptidae

166Ash-colored TapaculoMyornis senilis
167Trilling TapaculoScytalopus parvirostris
168White-crowned TapaculoScytalopus atratus
169Rufous-vented TapaculoScytalopus femoralis
170Utcubamba TapaculoScytalopus intermedius

 
Antthrushes: Formicariidae

171Rufous-capped AntthrushFormicarius colma

 
Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers: Furnariidae

172South American LeaftosserSclerurus obscurior
173Olivaceous WoodcreeperSittasomus griseicapillus
174Wedge-billed WoodcreeperGlyphorynchus spirurus
175Strong-billed WoodcreeperXiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus
176Montane WoodcreeperLepidocolaptes lacrymiger
177Plain XenopsXenops minutus
178Streaked XenopsXenops rutilans
179Streaked TuftedcheekPseudocolaptes boissonneautii
180Rusty-winged BarbtailPremnornis guttuliger
181Montane Foliage-gleanerAnabacerthia striaticollis
182Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleanerAnabacerthia ruficaudata
183Buff-browed Foliage-gleanerSyndactyla rufosuperciliata
184Buff-fronted Foliage-gleanerDendroma rufum
185Striped TreehunterThripadectes holostictus
186Buff-throated Foliage-gleanerAutomolus ochrolaemus
187Pearled TreerunnerMargarornis squamiger
188Rufous-fronted ThornbirdPhacellodomus rufifrons
189Chestnut-backed ThornbirdPhacellodomus dorsalis
190Streak-throated CanasteroAsthenes humilis
191White-chinned ThistletailAsthenes fuliginosa
192Russet-mantled SofttailThripophaga berlepschi
193|Line-cheeked Spinetail|Cranioleuca antisiensis
194Azara's SpinetailSynallaxis azarae
195Rufous SpinetailSynallaxis unirufa

 
Manakins: Pipridae

196Jet ManakinChloropipo unicolor
197Golden-headed ManakinCeratopipra erythrocephala

 
Cotingas: Cotingidae

198Green-and-black FruiteaterPipreola riefferii
199Barred FruiteaterPipreola arcuata
200Red-crested CotingaAmpelion rubrocristatus
201Chestnut-crested CotingaAmpelion rufaxilla
202Andean Cock-of-the-rockRupicola peruvianus
203Red-ruffed FruitcrowPyroderus scutatus

 
Tityras and Allies: Tityridae

204Green-backed BecardPachyramphus viridis
205Barred BecardPachyramphus versicolor
206Black-and-white BecardPachyramphus albogriseus

 
Tyrant Flycatchers: Tyrannidae

207Streak-necked FlycatcherMionectes striaticollis
208Olive-striped FlycatcherMionectes galbinus
209Slaty-capped FlycatcherLeptopogon superciliaris
210Mottle-cheeked TyrannuletPhylloscartes ventralis
211Rufous-headed Pygmy-TyrantPseudotriccus ruficeps
212Black-throated Tody-TyrantHemitriccus granadensis
213Cinnamon-breasted Tody-TyrantHemitriccus cinnamomeipectus
214Johnson's Tody-FlycatcherPoecilotriccus luluae
215Yellow-olive FlycatcherTolmomyias sulphurescens
216Olive-faced FlycatcherTolmomyias viridiceps
217Cinnamon FlycatcherPyrrhomyias cinnamomeus
218Cliff FlycatcherHirundinea ferruginea
219Ornate FlycatcherMyiotriccus ornatus
220\Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet\Camptostoma obsoletum
221White-tailed TyrannuletMecocerculus poecilocercus
222White-banded TyrannuletMecocerculus stictopterus
223Rufous-winged TyrannuletMecocerculus calopterus
224Sulphur-bellied TyrannuletMecocerculus minor
225Tufted Tit-TyrantAnairetes parulus
226Unstreaked Tit-TyrantUromyias agraphia
227Yellow-bellied ElaeniaElaenia flavogaster
228White-crested ElaeniaElaenia albiceps
229Mottle-backed ElaeniaElaenia gigas
230Lesser ElaeniaElaenia chiriquensis
231Highland ElaeniaElaenia obscura
232Sierran ElaeniaElaenia pallatangae
233Torrent TyrannuletSerpophaga cinerea
234Black-capped TyrannuletPhyllomyias nigrocapillus
235Ashy-headed TyrannuletPhyllomyias cinereiceps
236Peruvian TyrannuletZimmerius viridiflavus
237Flavescent FlycatcherMyiophobus flavicans
238Olive-chested FlycatcherMyiophobus cryptoxanthus
239Mouse-gray FlycatcherMyiophobus crypterythrus
240/Olive-sided Flycatcher/Contopus cooperi
241Smoke-colored PeweeContopus fumigatus
242/Western Wood-Pewee/Contopus sordidulus
243/Eastern Wood-Pewee/Contopus virens
244/Alder Flycatcher/Empidonax alnorum
245Black PhoebeSayornis nigricans
246Rufous-tailed TyrantKnipolegus poecilurus
247Jelski's Black-TyrantKnipolegus signatus
248Drab Water TyrantOchthornis littoralis
249Streak-throated Bush-TyrantMyiotheretes striaticollis
250Maroon-belted Chat-TyrantOchthoeca thoracica
251Rufous-breasted Chat-TyrantOchthoeca rufipectoralis
252Dusky-capped FlycatcherMyiarchus tuberculifer
253Sooty-crowned FlycatcherMyiarchus phaeocephalus
254Pale-edged FlycatcherMyiarchus cephalotes
255\Brown-crested Flycatcher\Myiarchus tyrannulus
256Great KiskadeePitangus sulphuratus
257Boat-billed FlycatcherMegarynchus pitangua
258Social FlycatcherMyiozetetes similis
259\Streaked Flycatcher\Myiodynastes maculatus
260Piratic FlycatcherLegatus leucophaius
261\Variegated Flycatcher\Empidonomus varius
262Tropical KingbirdTyrannus melancholicus
263/Eastern Kingbird/Tyrannus tyrannus

 
Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis: Vireonidae

264Rufous-browed PeppershrikeCyclarhis gujanensis
265Brown-capped VireoVireo leucophrys
266Red-eyed VireoVireo olivaceus
267Chivi VireoVireo chiri

 
Crows, Jays, and Magpies: Corvidae

268White-collared JayCyanolyca viridicyanus
269Inca JayCyanocorax yncas

 
Donacobius: Donacobiidae

270Black-capped DonacobiusDonacobius atricapilla

 
Swallows: Hirundinidae

271Blue-and-white SwallowPygochelidon cyanoleuca
272Pale-footed SwallowOrochelidon flavipes
273White-banded SwallowAtticora fasciata
274Southern Rough-winged SwallowStelgidopteryx ruficollis
275Gray-breasted MartinProgne chalybea
276/Barn Swallow/Hirundo rustica

 
Gnatcatchers: Polioptilidae

277Tropical GnatcatcherPolioptila plumbea

 
Wrens: Troglodytidae

278Scaly-breasted WrenMicrocerculus marginatus
279House WrenTroglodytes aedon
280Mountain WrenTroglodytes solstitialis
281Fasciated WrenCampylorhynchus fasciatus
282Speckle-breasted WrenPheugopedius sclateri
283Sharpe's WrenCinnycerthia olivascens
284Peruvian WrenCinnycerthia peruana
285White-breasted Wood-WrenHenicorhina leucosticta
286Bar-winged Wood-WrenHenicorhina leucoptera
287Gray-breasted Wood-WrenHenicorhina leucophrys
288Chestnut-breasted WrenCyphorhinus thoracicus

 
Dippers: Cinclidae

289White-capped DipperCinclus leucocephalus

 
Mockingbirds and Thrashers: Mimidae

290Long-tailed MockingbirdMimus longicaudatus

 
Thrushes and Allies: Turdidae

291Andean SolitaireMyadestes ralloides
292Slaty-backed Nightingale-ThrushCatharus fuscater
293/Swainson's Thrush/Catharus ustulatus
294White-eared SolitaireEntomodestes leucotis
295White-necked ThrushTurdus albicollis
296Pale-eyed ThrushTurdus leucops
297Black-billed ThrushTurdus ignobilis
298Marañon ThrushTurdus maranonicus
299Great ThrushTurdus fuscater
300Chiguanco ThrushTurdus chiguanco
301Glossy-black ThrushTurdus serranus

 
Old World Sparrows: Passeridae

302House SparrowPasser domesticus

 
Finches, Euphonias, and Allies: Fringillidae

303Golden-rumped EuphoniaChlorophonia cyanocephala
304Chestnut-breasted ChlorophoniaChlorophonia pyrrhophrys
305Purple-throated EuphoniaEuphonia chlorotica
306Thick-billed EuphoniaEuphonia laniirostris
307Orange-bellied EuphoniaEuphonia xanthogaster
308Bronze-green EuphoniaEuphonia mesochrysa
309Lesser GoldfinchSpinus psaltria
310Hooded SiskinSpinus magellanicus
311Olivaceous SiskinSpinus olivaceus

 
New World Sparrows: Passerellidae

312Common ChlorospingusChlorospingus flavopectus
313Gray-browed BrushfinchArremon assimilis
314Chestnut-capped BrushfinchArremon brunneinucha
315Rufous-collared SparrowZonotrichia capensis
316Yellow-breasted BrushfinchAtlapetes latinucha

 
Troupials and Allies: Icteridae

317Peruvian MeadowlarkLeistes bellicosa
318Yellow-billed CaciqueAmblycercus holosericeus
319Russet-backed OropendolaPsarocolius angustifrons
320Scarlet-rumped CaciqueCacicus uropygialis
321Yellow-rumped CaciqueCacicus cela
322Southern Mountain CaciqueCacicus chrysonotus
323Yellow-tailed OrioleIcterus mesomelas
324Oriole BlackbirdGymnomystax mexicanus

 
New World Warblers: Parulidae

325Black-lored YellowthroatGeothlypis auricularis
326Tropical ParulaSetophaga pitiayumi
327/Blackburnian Warbler/Setophaga fusca
328Three-striped WarblerBasileuterus tristriatus
329Citrine WarblerMyiothlypis luteoviridis
330Black-crested WarblerMyiothlypis nigrocristata
331Russet-crowned WarblerMyiothlypis coronata
332/Canada Warbler/Cardellina canadensis
333Slate-throated RedstartMyioborus miniatus
334Spectacled RedstartMyioborus melanocephalus

 
Cardinals and Allies: Cardinalidae

335Hepatic TanagerPiranga flava
336/Summer Tanager/Piranga rubra
337White-winged TanagerPiranga leucoptera
338Golden GrosbeakPheucticus chrysogaster

 
Tanagers and Allies: Thraupidae

339Black-faced TanagerSchistochlamys melanopis
340White-capped TanagerSericossypha albocristata
341Rufous-crested TanagerCreurgops verticalis
342Oleaginous HemispingusSphenopsis frontalis
343Black-eared HemispingusSphenopsis melanotis
344Buff-bellied TanagerThlypopsis inornata
345Superciliaried HemispingusThlypopsis superciliaris
346Rufous-chested TanagerThlypopsis ornata
347White-shouldered TanagerLoriotus luctuosus
348White-lined TanagerTachyphonus rufus
349Silver-beaked TanagerRamphocelus carbo
350Hooded Mountain TanagerButhraupis montana
351Blue-capped TanagerSporathraupis cyanocephala
352Grass-green TanagerChlorornis riefferii
353Lacrimose Mountain TanagerAnisognathus lacrymosus
354Scarlet-bellied Mountain TanagerAnisognathus igniventris
355Blue-winged Mountain TanagerAnisognathus somptuosus
356Yellow-throated TanagerIridosornis analis
357Yellow-scarfed TanagerIridosornis reinhardti
358Fawn-breasted TanagerPipraeidea melanonota
359Blue-gray TanagerThraupis episcopus
360Palm TanagerThraupis palmarum
361Spotted TanagerIxothraupis punctata
362Silvery TanagerStilpnia viridicollis
363Green-throated TanagerStilpnia argyrofenges
364Blue-necked TanagerStilpnia cyanicollis
365Blue-and-black TanagerTangara vassorii
366Beryl-spangled TanagerTangara nigroviridis
367Metallic-green TanagerTangara labradorides
368Blue-browed TanagerTangara cyanotis
369Paradise TanagerTangara chilensis
370Saffron-crowned TanagerTangara xanthocephala
371Flame-faced TanagerTangara parzudakii
372Golden-collared HoneycreeperIridophanes pulcherrimus
373Guira TanagerHemithraupis guira
374Yellow-backed TanagerHemithraupis flavicollis
375Blue-backed ConebillConirostrum sitticolor
376Capped ConebillConirostrum albifrons
377Cinereous ConebillConirostrum cinereum
378Black-throated FlowerpiercerDiglossa brunneiventris
379White-sided FlowerpiercerDiglossa albilatera
380Rusty FlowerpiercerDiglossa sittoides
381Deep-blue FlowerpiercerDiglossa glauca
382Bluish FlowerpiercerDiglossa caerulescens
383Masked FlowerpiercerDiglossa cyanea
384Peruvian Sierra FinchPhrygilus punensis
385Ash-breasted Sierra FinchGeospizopsis plebejus
386Drab HemispingusPseudospingus xanthophthalmus
387Gray-hooded Bush TanagerCnemoscopus rubrirostris
388Saffron FinchSicalis flaveola
389Grassland Yellow-FinchSicalis luteola
390Blue-black GrassquitVolatinia jacarina
391Black-and-white SeedeaterSporophila luctuosa
392Yellow-bellied SeedeaterSporophila nigricollis
393Red-crested FinchCoryphospingus cucullatus
394BananaquitCoereba flaveola
395Dull-colored GrassquitAsemospiza obscurus
396Buff-throated SaltatorSaltator maximus
397Bluish-gray SaltatorSaltator coerulescens
398Streaked SaltatorSaltator striatipectus

 *Nomenclature and taxonomic affinities are based on Clements 6th Edition published 2007 with updates through 2021 maintained by the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, which relies largely on the AOU and SACC nomenclature committees. IUCN status may reflect splits not currently recognized by Clements.
**Species not accepted by Clements, AOU, or SACC that we recognize based on the IOC, field observations along with geographical separation, consensus opinions of field guide authors, and other sources. These species are potential splits in future Clements updates.

OTHER LOCALES

PRESENCE CODES

CodeDescription##
//Boreal Visitor10
\\Austral Visitor4
||Transient0
##Non-breeding Dispersal0
<>Erratic/Irregular2
()Breeding Season Only0
{}Casual/Vagrant0
[]Accidental0

STATUS CODES

CodeDescription##
NTNear Threatened12
VVulnerable4
ENEndangered4
CRCritically Endangered0

Species counts in code tables depend on completeness of the data. For some countries or locales, data may not include all species or information on species presence may be incomplete.